New development sites can impact the surrounding roadway system by adding additional traffic volume to existing traffic or altering existing traffic patterns. In addition to designing appropriate access for proposed developments, transportation engineers are normally required to maintain a satisfactory level of operation and traffic safety for the roadways users adjacent to the proposed developments. The road users are broadly defined as all surface transportation modes including automobiles, transit, trucks, pedestrians, bicycle and other non-motorized modes of transportation.
Traffic Impact Assessments (TIA) or Traffic Impact Studies (TIS) are part of our Transportation and Traffic Consulting Services. They gather and analyze information that will help determine the needs for any improvements to interior, adjacent, and nearby roadway systems within the vicinity of a proposed development. Oftentimes, a TIA/TIS is conducted within the context of a larger environmental impact study, which is typically mandated for projects planned under the auspices of a public jurisdiction that may experience significant deleterious impacts on its environment due to a proposed project. A TIA/TIS will thus normally be incorporated into a multidisciplinary study effort generally known as an environmental impact assessments (EIA). In summary, a TIA/TIS primarily serves two purposes:
1. To determine and disclose all significant traffic impacts of a proposed development; and
2. To identify “mitigation measures” that would likely to reduce or otherwise compensate for the negative traffic impacts. In many urban jurisdictions, traffic impacts and mitigations are routinely among the most visible and controversial aspect of environmental studies for development projects.
Addoz Engineering Inc. is Civil Engineering Consultants
Traffic Impact Assessments / Traffic Impact Studies are Essential for any Land Development Project
The founding principal of Addoz Engineering Inc. has considerable amount of knowledge and expertise in preparing traffic impact assessments/studies, traffic modeling and warrant analyses, as well as traffic operation evaluations for various commercial, residential, office, educational, and mixed-use land development projects throughout North America. With over hundred of TIA/TIS successfully delivered on behalf of various clients in Alberta, British Columbia and Michigan-USA, our principal acquired extensive experience dealing with all types of land uses and have been working regularly with private developers and public agencies to fully analyze the traffic impacts associated with proposed developments, while providing appropriate mitigation measures to alleviate potential traffic impacts as result of the proposed projects.
Addoz Engineering Inc. has the technical expertise and the state-of-the-art evaluation tools to tackle some of the complex transportation and traffic engineering problems. The key elements of our firm’s approach to effectively solve traffic impacts and congestion problems consist of the following components:
• Utilizing the latest analytical techniques and methodologies to suit individual project’s needs. • Generating the results that will likely to represent the real life operations/situations.
• Focusing on practical applications of the results and developing realistic solutions to serve individual project needs.
• Utilizing visual presentation incorporating real-time traffic simulation, and
• Working closely with our private sector clients and the public agencies alike to address and mitigate potential development traffic impacts and to move forward the project approval process.
During erosion, soil particles are detached from the ground surface by the forces of wind, water, ice, and gravity. There are different types of erosion associated with flowing water and blowing wind. Among these types, to name a few are: saltation erosion, shoreline erosion, snow melt erosion, splash or rain drop impact erosion, etc.
Sediment is sand, silt, clay, or gravel that is detached from the ground surface during erosion and transported by wind and water. Sedimentation occurs when water picks up sediment and transports it down gradient. Sediment is deposited when the water slows. The amount of sediment that can be carried is dependent on the velocity and volume of water. Sedimentation can also occur through wind. Windblown particles are deposited as wind speed slows.
Erosion and sedimentation are natural processes that help to shape rivers and valleys. However, land-disturbing activities, such as construction, can speed up this process. Construction activities can compact soil and increase paving and other impermeable surfaces, preventing rain and snowmelt from entering the soil. This can increase the quantity and velocity of storm water runoff, which then increases the potential for additional erosion. Construction activities can also temporarily increase the risk of erosion by removing vegetation that holds the soil in place. Sediment is transported in storm water runoff, which may eventually make its way to a waterway or a storm sewer system which discharges into a waterway. During a short period of time, construction activities can contribute more sediment to waterways than is naturally deposited over several decades.
Suspended sediment in storm water runoff is a leading cause of water quality impairment in Montana. Excess suspended sediment can degrade the quality of aquatic habitat by increasing water temperatures and decreasing habitat quality for cold water species like trout. When sediment settles on the bottom of water bodies, it harms fish spawning habitats. Excess sediment can fill rivers, lakes, and water storage facilities, and clog catch basins and storm drains, causing flooding and resulting in higher maintenance costs. In addition, sediments can transport other pollutants that can be toxic or harmful to humans and aquatic or other wildlife.
Water Pollution Control Strategies
Erosion control practices protect the soil surface against erosion mechanisms such as wind and water using soil stabilization BMP's. The goal of erosion control is to keep the soil in its original location.
Sediment control practices trap soil particles after they have been dislodged and prevent or minimize their movement off site through storm water discharge.
Sediment control BMP's are generally not as effective as erosion control BMP's and are typically considered secondary practices installed after all opportunities for erosion control have been implemented.
Erosion control practices are preferred over sediment control practices because they are a preventative measure focusing on the cause of sedimentation.
Erosion control practices are preferred over sediment control practices. Best Management Practice.
Storm Water Management (SWM)
Parking studies are performed to identify inadequacies in the supply of parking, or to determine existing demand in order to plan for future parking. The study size may vary from an individual private lot to a city-wide study incorporating both private and public lots as well as on-street parking. One important component of a parking study is an inventory of the current parking supply, which is required virtually in all parking studies. The parking demand characteristics are more meaningful when presented in context with the parking supply (and vice versa).
Addoz Engineering Inc. has the technical expertise in successfully assisting both the public and private sector clients in carrying out inventory studies of parking supply, evaluating parking demand, space and related traffic operations requirements, as well as integrating parking in mixed-use projects. We understands that the land uses, the size, layout, and operations of parking facilities are key factors for the success of both individual development projects and community activity centers alike. Our firm has the knowledge and experience in undertaking the following parking studies and evaluations along with the required field data collection:
Parking Supply & Demand Studies / Evaluations
Shared Parking Studies, which specifically focus on how time, day and/or seasonal demands affect parking usage levels within a mixed-use development. Shared parking would occur as a result of the following conditions:
Financial Feasibility Studies
Inventory of Parking Facilities Data in the forms of location, condition, type, number of parking spaces, time limits, hours of availability and stall layouts.
Accumulation Counts to obtain data on number of vehicles parked in a study area during a specific time period.
Duration and Turnover Surveys,and
User Information Surveys in the forms of parking interviews to gather information about trip purpose and etc.
Addoz Engineering Inc. is also experienced in analyzing parking operations in terms of on-site and off-site circulations, facility constraints, as well as planning and functional design of parking facilities to fit within the context of its environment including on-street curb parking and off-street facilities of parking lots and parking garages
Traffic safety is essential when work activities involving utilities, highway constructions or rehabilitation, structure work, material testing and surveying are performed on or adjacent to roadway/bridge facilities. In any of these cases, a traffic accommodation strategy (TAS) would be needed to safely direct traffic through the work zones.
The purpose of a Traffic Accommodation Strategy is to provide adequate information, traffic control devices, work zone signage, and work zone operational procedures that meet minimum transportation agency standards. The TAS document is intended for the various parties involved in the work activities so that the accommodation of traffic is handled in a consistent, safe, and effective manner. A TAS is essential to ensure that all parties involved in road constructions have a clear understanding of how traffic needs to be accommodated during the construction and through the construction zones.
Addoz Engineering Inc. has solid experience in preparing traffic accommodation strategies for provincial highway projects as well as municipal local projects. Our team has developed effective accommodation strategies utilizing various traffic control devices for both urban and rural highway construction projects. In addition, we have prepared drawings detailing temporary signage and site specific traffic control measures for non-typical work zones. Our team's previous work experience also included developing effective traffic accommodation strategies and procedures for various highway construction projects in other jurisdictions.
Traffic Accommodation Strategies or Traffic Management Plans for Road Construction Projects
Traffic volume data and its accuracy are essential in ensuring the successful completion of technically sound traffic impact or transportation planning studies, which in turn determine the ultimate transportation infrastructure improvements needs to mitigate development impacts or alleviate existing traffic congestion within a particular geographic area. Traffic data collection provides the basis for identifying problems, confirming earlier hypotheses, quantifying the impacts of proposed developments or land use changes as well as determining the nature or magnitude of needed improvements. How well trained the data collection personnel are and the selection of right data collection types, times, forms and methods are the key factors for obtaining accurate traffic volume counts.
Addoz Engineering Inc. understands that traffic count procedures for individual projects must be clearly defined in a data collection plan prior to starting the field work, including the types of information needed, acceptable collection time frames, and any special conditions by each of the specific projects. Our firm has a dedicated team of field staff who are professionally trained to perform different types of traffic data collection tasks including but not limited to:
Intersection Classified Turning Movement Count (TMC): This type of traffic count is manually collected utilizing hand-held electronic or mechanic traffic counters. The field personnel visually observes the number of approaching vehicles, trucks, emergency vehicles, bicycles or pedestrians on each of the intersection approaches. The information is then recorded on the counter for a extended period of time, typically a two hour period each during both the morning and the afternoon commute peak hours of adjacent traffic. The data collected include turning movement volumes and vehicle classification typically distributed in 15-minute intervals. Roadway geometric, lane assignments, traffic control devices, signing and pavement markings, traffic signal timings (if signalized) and any special traffic operation conditions are also noted during the data collection. TMC is typically collected during the normal weekday periods, excluding holidays and weekends. Our professional staff has extensive experience in performing TMC Counts.
Queue Length Data: Addoz Engineering Inc. has the service capability in collecting vehicle queue data and performing queue analyses at signalized and un-signalized intersection and at facilities such as restaurant drive through lanes to determine the maximum existing queues and to estimate future queuing needs for lane storage design.
Travel Time and Delay Data: These studies are usually performed to determine potential benefits of corridor improvements in reducing travel delays and shortening travel times that would result from signal timing synchronization or other traffic improvement measures. The before and after run data are collected to compare the performance improvements along a study corridor. The floating vehicle method is typically used in these types of studies. Addoz Engineering Inc. has specially trained staff who are capable of performing the above data collection tasks.
Parking Inventory Data: Please refer to the details of our data collection capabilities for parking studies.
Traffic Data Collection, Turning Movement Count
Addoz Engineering Inc. has the technical expertise and modeling tools to solve some of the complex transportation and traffic engineering problems. Our traffic engineering modeling service capabilities include operation evaluations, traffic corridor studies and simulation, signalized, un-signalized intersection and roundabout capacity analyses, coordinated signal timing plans for street corridors, freeway and interchange/ramp junctions congestion and level of service (LOS) evaluations, queuing analysis, and traffic impact studies /assessments for land development projects. Our firm is equipped with the state-of-the-art traffic evaluation software programs capable of utilizing both the microscopic and macroscopic modeling approaches to address real life situations, including Synchro & SimTraffic, HCS, and Sidra Intersections.
For example, our principals have been frequently requested by developers to assess potential traffic impacts of proposed commercial, residential, office, educational, mixed-use, industrial, and other types of land development projects, and to recommend practical measures or executable solutions as part of the project mitigation plans for the developments to move forward. They also bring in from their past projects valuable experiences in operation evaluations and studies of intersections, traffic corridors, freeway interchange/ramp junctions and parking facilities, as well as traffic signal coordination and timing optimization.
All Types of Transportation Control Systems. Traffic Impact Assessment, Traffic Accommodation Plan
Traffic signs and pavement markings are used to intricate traffic control devices that by simple display are used to regulate, warn and guide traffic on streets and highways. Traffic signs are used to convey a variety of messages to the road users. As speeds and volumes of traffic have increased over the years, the complexities of providing the messages will increase accordingly. General pavement markings consist of lines, longitudinal or transverse, as well as symbols and words that are applied to the pavements. To command the road users’ attention, traffic signs and pavement markings must have the fundamental qualities of conspicuous, legibility and recognition.
In Canada, the principles and standards governing traffic signing and pavement marking applications are set out in the Canadian Manual of Uniform Traffic Control Devices (CMUTCD). Per the CMUTCD, traffic control signs are classified into five categories as regulatory signs, warning signs, guide signs, emergency management and civil defense signs, and school signs, while pavement markings are categorized as one of the following five classes as longitudinal, lateral, merging/diverging, symbols and letters and special situations (types).
Addoz Engineering Inc.’s design team is familiar with the signing and pavement marking standards by Alberta Transportation including those contained in the “Highway Guide and Information Sign Manual”, as well as those local design standards by the most major cities and municipalities across the province. Our firm is experienced in undertaking signing and pavement marking design for various traffic and transportation improvements projects for both the private and public sector clients in Alberta, elsewhere in Canada, as well as in the US.
In addition, there are unusual traffic circumstances that require exceptions to the standard rules, hence demanding special attention and engineering judgment from the design professionals. Addoz Engineering Inc has experience in completing signing and pavement marking projects of unusual designs where professional engineering judgments and practical experience are exercised to supplement the standard design guidelines.
Pavement Marking and Traffic Signage Plan
Transportation Planning is a comprehensive process that involves evaluation, assessment and design of transportation facilities including streets, highways, bicycle lanes, and public transport infrastructure. Transportation Planning Practice is defined as improving coordination between land uses and transportation system planning; providing cooperative interaction between planning, design, and operation of transportation services; maintaining a balance between transportation-related energy use, clean air and water, and encouraging alternative modes of transportation that will enhance efficiency while providing high levels of mobility and safety to the Public.The purpose of a transportation planning study, therefore, is to develop recommended plans for future transportation improvements and or projects based on analysis of critical technical and environmental issues. One important aspect of transportation planning study is to determine how much room is needed for roadways and public transportation infrastructure, so that the required lands can be preserved for future use.
Addoz Engineering Inc.’s team of professionals are experienced in implementing the state-of-the-art evaluation methodologies and modeling techniques for solving common transportation planning problems. Our experience in preparing transportation planning studies enables us to determine the most appropriate types of data required, collection methods and data formats to support each specific planning study. Our firm brings together complex analysis, findings and decision making to successfully prepare transportation plans for regions, cities, corridors and sub-areas. For example, we undertake planning studies for municipalities to facilitate better transportation decisions, sounding policies, plans and strategies for planning horizons.
The following factors and or approaches are considered in our transportation planning studies:
• Having a comprehensive transportation plan to guide the long term growth
• The scalability of transportation plans and a scope that fits the problem at hand
• The roles and responsibilities of those involved in transportation planning process,and
• Transportation planning techniques, data needs and data management
The types of Transportation Planning Studies that Addoz Engineering Inc performs include:
• Corridor Study - This type of studies are usually performed 10 to 30 years in advance of construction or project implementation to identify how much transportation and or roadway improvements is needed, including building the new roads or upgrading the existing transportation infrastructure/or roadways.
• Network Study and Long Range Planning - This type of studies are completed to determine general placement and classification for roadways within a planning area.
• Functional Planning Study - Functional planning studies develop concepts that outline long-term requirements for the ultimate design of transportation network or roadway within a specified study area. These studies usually involve both municipalities and provincial governments.
Our founding principal has extensive knowledge and hands-on project experience in traffic signal operations, signal timing design, coordination timing plans and operations. Coupled with our firm’s capabilities in signal design and traffic modeling, we also provide traffic signal operation evaluations and timing design services, including designing timing plans for new signalization projects, re-timing existing traffic signals, developing optimized timing plans, and preparing coordination timing plans for signalized corridors.
Our engineers utilize the start-of-the-art software programs to evaluate, simulate, optimize, coordinate and synchronize traffic signal systems. The software programs allow us to create timing model based on existing traffic volumes, roadway and intersection geometric, intersection spacing, and traffic characteristics of link speeds, travel times, and start-up lost times at signalized intersections. After the model calibration, optimized or coordinated timing plans are consequently developed, consisting of important timing parameters of offsets, force-offs, phase splits, phase sequence, left-turn phase treatments such as protected vs. permissive, and pedestrian timings.
Our team’s previous project experience included signal timing work for various jurisdictions outside Alberta. Our founding principal had completed various timing coordination projects in the US State of Michigan where he led the signal timing optimization and coordination project efforts involving over 300 signalized intersections.
Traffic Impact Assessment (TIA)
Traffic Impact Studies (TIS)
Municipal infrastructures in the forms of water supply, sewer, storm drainage and utility facilities such as power supply and telecommunication lines are part of the broad categories of public works infrastructures that also consist of public buildings, transportation infrastructure of roads, railroads, bridges, pipelines, canals, ports and airports, as well as other usually long-term, physical assets and facilities.
Addoz Engineering Inc.provides transportation Consulting Services, Civil Engineering Consultants services on municipal infrastructure studies, planning, engineering and detailed project design involving potable water, sanitary sewer, storm drainage, traffic signalization, roadway lighting and dry utilities improvements for various land development projects, as well as utility relocation planning and design for highway construction projects.
Addoz Engineering Inc. has completed a number of municipal engineering design projects for land development ranging from project planning through to detailed design. The engineering services provided by our firm include preparing Area Structure Plans and Outline Plans for mixed use development projects, as well as detailed project design of Development Site Servicing Plans (DSSP's) for commercial projects (i.e., service stations) involving site grading, stormwater management; on-site utilities of drainage, potable water and sanitary sewer; erosion and sedimentation control and construction management.
Road improvements include changes to roadway horizontal and vertical alignments, geometric or physical improvements involving widening, incorporating intersections and roadside traffic safety features, as well as restoration and rehabilitation including surface repaving, repair or replacement of stream crossings, rehabilitation or replacement of drainage and bridge structures. Road improvement provides an opportunity to upgrade, improve, or repair an existing roadway or highway that is aged or substandard in one or more of its vital elements.
Addoz Engineering Inc. has considerable experience in the design of certain roadway improvement projects including but not limited to:
• Intersection Conceptual Layout and Design
• Traffic Signing and Pavement Marking Plans
• Intersection Signalization Improvements
• Roadway Lighting Design
• Roundabout Design
• Access and Circulation Evaluations and Design, and
• Traffic Accommodation Plans for Roadway Constructions.
Intersection Improvement Designs. Intersection Layout Assessment
Effective drainage systems are necessary to prevent flooding to highways, properties, sites and or lands as well as to conserve resources. The importance of adequate drainage is recognized, for example, in the highway construction dollars to be allocated to drainage facilities, which typically accounts for about 20% - 25% of total construction costs for highway structures such as culverts, bridge, channel, ditches as well as for erosion control. Two important components of drainage engineering are hydrology and hydraulics. The former is the science that deals with the characteristics and distribution of water in the atmosphere on the earth’s surface or in the ground, while the latter is a topic in applied science and engineering dealing with the mechanical properties of liquids for which fluid mechanics provides the theoretical foundation.
Addoz Engineering Inc.’s staff have solid hands-on project experience in drainage engineering, Stormwater Management and project design both in Canada and the US. Our related expertise includes flood plan evaluations for land development projects, preparing detailed drainage design and complete project PS&E’s of drainage plans, profiles, and construction estimates for highway and land development projects, as well as performing QC review of various highway drainage study reports.
Development Site Servicing Plan (DSSP)
Comprehensive multi-modal transportation system planning and study is an extremely complex subject, which is a significant portion of the total planning effort of regional and metropolitan planning agencies working in conjunction with provincial/state and the federal governments. The principal modes of transportation for people and goods movements consist of highway, rail, air, and marine. The main elements for each mode include the vehicles (in the forms of automobiles, buses, trucks, intercity rails, commuter trains, subways and freight trains, aircraft, ships and barges); travel ways (i.e., highways, rail lines, waterways and air space); and transportation terminals/transfer facilities (in the forms of rail terminals, airports, ports or marine terminals/harbors, and inter-modal facilities).
The key objectives of multi-modal transportation system studies and planning include:
• Enhancing the mobility of people and goods movements and stimulating economy.
• Increasing the efficiency and safety of travel and goods movements considering different modes of transportation and
transfer between the modes.
• Avoiding detrimental impacts of each mode of transportation on environment and communities.
• Minimizing monetary costs associated with travel time and capital investment on transportation infrastructures/facilities.
Addoz Engineering Inc.’s founding principal have hands-on project experience in multimodal transportation studies involving virtually all modes of transportation. Our expertise includes technical studies and planning work at both regional level and multimodal scale with the following approaches (not inclusive):
• Engaging in developing study framework with extensive consultation with the stake holders;
• Performing in-depth technical review of the current state of multimodal transportation infrastructures pertinent to the studies; and
• Working closely with various project stakeholders and government agencies on key multimodal as well as regional transportation issues that would likely have major social, economic and environmental impacts.
Transportation Planning and Design.
Our engineers brought more than 18 years of career experience in transportation consulting services and civil engineering consultants services. These include designing over hundred signalization projects with the complete Plans, Specifications and Construction Cost Estimates (PS&E’s), enabling our firm to deliver traffic signal design services ranging from new construction to retrofitting/modification design. Our signal design service is a key and integrated component of our overall traffic engineering service capabilities that allows us to undertake projects from planning to construction. The design services are carried out in-house by our senior engineering staff/engineers who have the field and hands-on experience for practical designs, which has set us apart from many other firms due to the following reasons:
Extensive Field Review: We do not solely rely on as-built plans for modification projects design, which often time become obsolete and fail to show subsequent signal modification work over the time. Our engineers and technicians conduct extensive site review to verify existing field conditions of traffic signal equipment prior to design, including underground checking for conduit runs and signal wiring. For new traffic signalization project, we also conduct detailed field investigation to review geometric constraints, traffic operations and safety issues, as well as potential utility conflicts as a result of signalization improvements.
Close Coordination with Public Agencies: Our engineers work closely with review agencies to ensure that jurisdiction standards are met and the design addresses the special project needs, if any.
Constructability: We are focusing on the project “constructability”, especially for those retrofitting/modification projects. Our engineers have developed extensive experience in the design of traffic signal, related electrical components, and signal interconnect systems. Consequently, fewer unknowns would likely arise during the project construction, resulting in minimum interruption to construction and high project “constructability’” that both our clients and agencies are expecting.
Traffic Signal Timing Plan Designs
Typically, your residential septic tank will be approximately 5 feet wide, 8 feet long, and 5 feet deep, made from concrete, and have a capacity of about 750 to 2000 gallons. Many newer models are comprised of two compartments featuring an inlet and outlet baffle, as well as an effluent filter. Septic tanks today can be plastic or concrete. Plastic is preferred when a crane truck cannot gain access into a construction site. The preferred tank for most situations where a tank replacement is necessary would be a plastic tank.
Septic Tank Baffles
The baffles on a septic tank are installed at the inlets and outlets. The inlet baffle prevents mixing in a portioned septic tank, and the outlet baffle keeps suspended solids from moving to the leaching field. Both baffles are essential in keeping the surface scum layer undisturbed.
Baffles are typically made from plastic, but in older systems, they were made from concrete. No matter what kind of baffles you have, it is always important to have them inspected along with the tank itself.
Along with the outlet baffle, an effluent filter keeps suspended solids from exiting into the leaching field or tile bed. If the filter and the baffle are not working correctly, they can cause backups and tile bed failure. Effluent filters are a good way to increase the life of your system and insure its proper function.
Effluent filters are mandatory in all new systems, and maintenance is required throughout the year to keep them in top shape. If you have an older septic tank and would like an effluent filter installed, contact us.
Manufacturers advise cleaning the effluent filter at least once every six months. You can schedule this service with us, or, if you are up to the challenge, we can provide you with training to perform this service yourself.
Septic Pump Chamber
For larger septic systems that require a raised leaching bed, a septic pump is often required to move the effluent to the leaching field. Our trained technicians can install and maintain your septic pump as needed. Besides supplying new pumps, we can also install an alarm system which warns you if your septic pump is not working properly.
It is very important to have a pump chamber inspected every two to three years and pumped out if necessary. You do not want any sludge building up in this tank as it will harm the pump and will cause damage if pumped to the leaching bed.
Septic Holding Tanks
With some properties, storage tanks, called holding tanks, are used instead of drainage fields. These tanks typically hold 2000 gallons of wastewater or more. As the tank fills up, an alarm warns you when it is time to have it pumped.
Leaching Beds/Tile Fields
Various distribution systems exist for the wastewater that exits the septic tank. Some of the common layouts include conventional leaching beds, raised leaching beds, area beds, filter beds, Types 1 & 2 dispersal beds, and shallow buried trenches.
The type of system required is dependent on a number of factors, including the location of the septic system, the size of the system needed, soil conditions, etc. Weber Environmental Services can design a distribution system that is the best option for your needs and your budget.
A biofiltration system typically takes up less space than a traditional septic tank, and operates differently than a septic tank system. When wastewater enters a biofiltration system, it is dispersed over the surface of a filter media bed. That filtration system removes much of the harmful organic waste before the discharge is released into the ground.
When considering this option, you must follow local regulatory standards about site location. You should also consider the usage required of this system. To learn more, please contact us.
Sewage Treatment Plants
Some residential and commercial septic systems have a component called a sewage treatment plant. This component is installed to help clean the outflowing wastewater. Each sewage treatment plant is required to have annual maintenance and constant monitoring. Weber Environmental Services can serve as your regular maintenance provider, and we will ensure that all necessary regulations are being met. If you have any questions, or if you think this is a viable option for you, please contact us.
Water Usage and Your Septic System
When you have a septic system, all water coming from the house or business passes through it. From the toilets, showers, and tap water to the dishwasher or washing machine, your septic system processes all water usage.
Although your septic system was designed with maximum usage in mind, remember that if all of these appliances are running at the same time, your septic system must process a huge influx of water all at once. This much water at one time may cause stress to your septic system, which may slow down, or dilute the available bacteria in your septic tank. Spacing out the water usage to allow your septic system to keep up will help your system work more effectively and efficiently. You may also want to conserve water through high-efficiency toilets and showerheads, and check regularly for leaky faucets or other water loss.
The structural system of a building is designed and constructed to support and transmit the
applied gravity and lateral loads safely to the ground without exceeding the allowable stresses
in its members. It is a configuration of components that are dependent on one another and act
together in a framework.
The superstructure is the vertical extension of a building above the ground. It includes all
columns and beams and load-bearing walls supporting the floor and roof structures. The
substructure is the underlying structure forming the foundation of a building.
No matter whether the carcass is masonry, a timber or a steel frame, all structural elements and
their interaction form the structural framework of the building. No single element alone is
responsible for the supporting structure, but the combination of members together with the
configuration of joints.
Elements can be distinguished according to their alignment, vertical or horizontal members,
according to their configuration, bar or panel system, or according to their effectiveness. The
correct choice and dimensioning of elements prevent deformation and ensure the stability of
wall a vertical panel
pillar another word for column; usually applied for square or rectangular columns,
which are integrated in walls
column vertical member supporting a roof or beam; in Greek temples, there is a
differentiation between e.g. Doric and Corinthian ones
post a slender light support
stud a vertical steel or timber member used in framing
pier provides substantial support to the substructure
slab a horizontal panel
beam a horizontal bar
truss a framework comprising several members in triangular units to span great
girder a main beam
joist a horizontal supporting member that runs from wall to wall, or beam to
beam; typically it is smaller than a beam
lintel a horizontal beam usually supporting the masonry above a window or door
cantilever a beam only supported on one end; it allows for overhanging structures
without external bracing
All structural members forming rigid constructions have to be connected in one way or
another. Depending on the method used, it is either referred to as a bond for glued connections,
a joint, hinge or link for connections allowing some movement.
In steel construction, there are three main connection methods, namely riveting, bolting and
welding. For riveting, which is the least common nowadays, a rivet is hammered into aligned
holes. When bolting two members, a bolt is pushed through the aligned holes and a nut is
threaded on and tightened with a spanner.
Many joints, especially those made in shop, are welded. Welding joins metals by melting and
fusing. There are two basic types, the butt weld, which is employed to join parallel members,
such as pipes, and the fillet weld, which is used to connect a vertical to a horizontal member.
Copyright © 2018 Addoz Engineering Inc. - All Rights Reserved. - Transportation engineering consultants Alberta, Saskatchewan, British Columbia, Ontario, Civil Engineering Consultant, Development Site Servicing Plan Consultant, DSSP Consultant, Project Management Consultant, Tender Document Preparations, Specifications, RFP, RFQ, Scheduling, Project Supervision and managements, Estimating, MTO preparation, Civil Engineering Services, Traffic Engineering and Planning
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